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基于ASM环境Oracle Database 12c单实例安装与配置

内容发布:luashin| 发布时间:2017-6-7 22:54:02
Oracle 12C安装参考:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/122/CWLIN/preface.htm#CWLIN-GUID-69C6312A-43D6-4982-8C8E-611C3F9A91A5
1、检查系统环境
1)配置本地YUM源
[root@localhost ~]# rm -rf /etc/yum.repos.d/*.repo
mkdir /mnt/cdrom && echo "/dev/sr0/mnt/cdrom iso9660 defaults 0 0" >> /etc/fstab && mount -a
cat > /etc/yum.repos.d/rhel6-media.repo <<EOF
[rhel6 - Server]
name=rhel6-Server
baseurl=file:///mnt/cdrom
enabled=1
gpgcheck=0
[HighAvailability]
name=rhel6-source
baseurl=file:///mnt/cdrom/HighAvailability
enabled=1
gpgcheck=0
[rhel6-LoadBalancer]
name=rhel6-source
baseurl=file:///mnt/cdrom/LoadBalancer
enabled=1
gpgcheck=0
[rhel6-ResilientStorage]
name=rhel6-source
baseurl=file:///mnt/cdrom/ResilientStorage
enabled=1
gpgcheck=0
[rhel6-ScalableFileSystem]
name=rhel6-source
baseurl=file:///mnt/cdrom/ScalableFileSystem
enabled=1
gpgcheck=0
EOF
wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS6-Base-163.repohttp://mirrors.163.com/.help/CentOS6-Base-163.repo && sed -i &apos;s/$releasever/6.9/g&apos;/etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS6-Base-163.repo && sed -i&apos;s/gpgcheck=1/gpgcheck=0/g&apos;/etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS6-Base-163.repo
wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS6-Base-aliyun.repohttp://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-6.repo && sed -i&apos;s/$releasever/6.9/g&apos;/etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS6-Base-aliyun.repo && sed -i&apos;s/gpgcheck=1/gpgcheck=0/g&apos;/etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS6-Base-aliyun.repo
cat > /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS6-Base-idc.repo<<EOF
[Base - Server]
name=rhel6-Server
baseurl=http://mirrors.yun-idc.com/centos/6.8/os/x86_64/
enable=1
gpgcheck=0
gpgkey=http://mirrors.yun-idc.com/centos/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6
EOF
yum -y install epel-release && yum cleanall && yum makecache && yum update
yum -y install vim lrzsz ntpd
2)关闭防火墙
[root@localhost ~]# service iptables stop chkconfigiptables off && chkconfig ip6tables off && service ip6tablesstop
3)关闭SELinux(getenforce;setenforce 0)
[root@localhost ~]# sed -i"s/SELINUX=enforcing/SELINUX=disabled/" /etc/selinux/config&& setenforce 0
关闭不常用语的守护进程
for i in apmd autofs cups hpoj isdn netfs nfslockpcmcia portmap rhnsd sendmail rpcbind postfix kdump xfs;
do
chkconfig $i off
done
4)设置本机IP及计算机名
[root@localhost ~]# hostname
[root@localhost ~]# vim /etc/hosts
<IP地址> <完整的机器名> <机器名>
2、检查服务器硬件和内存配置
1)检查物理内存:
[root@localhost ~]# grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo
最小1G
△ 推荐2G或更多
2)检查swap空间:
[root@localhost ~]# grep SwapTotal /proc/meminfo
物理内存在1-2G之间,配置是同等物理内存的1.5倍
物理内存在2-16G之间,配置同等于物理内存
物理内存大于16G,配置同等于16G
3)检查/tmp目录可用空间
[root@localhost ~]# df -h /tmp
至少1G
△ 推荐2G
4)检查硬盘剩余空间
[root@localhost ~]# df -h
企业版   6.4 GB
标准版   6.1 GB
标准版1  6.1 GB
△推荐:30G
5)检查内存和硬盘交换空间大小:
[root@localhost ~]# free
6)查看服务器系统架构
[root@localhost ~]# uname -m
3、安装前准备工作:
安装rpm包
需要的rpm包如下:
Oracle Linux 7
Supported distributions:
Oracle Linux 7 with the Unbreakable Enterprise kernel:3.8.13-33.el7uek.x86_64 or later
Oracle Linux 7 with the Red Hat Compatible kernel:3.10.0-123.el7.x86_64 or later
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7
Supported distributions: Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7:3.10.0-123.el7.x86_64 or later
Packages for Oracle Linux 7 and Red Hat EnterpriseLinux 7
binutils-2.23.52.0.1-12.el7.x86_64
compat-libcap1-1.10-3.el7.x86_64
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-71.el7.i686
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-71.el7.x86_64
gcc-4.8.2-3.el7.x86_64
gcc-c++-4.8.2-3.el7.x86_64
glibc-2.17-36.el7.i686
glibc-2.17-36.el7.x86_64
glibc-devel-2.17-36.el7.i686
glibc-devel-2.17-36.el7.x86_64
ksh
libaio-0.3.109-9.el7.i686
libaio-0.3.109-9.el7.x86_64
libaio-devel-0.3.109-9.el7.i686
libaio-devel-0.3.109-9.el7.x86_64
libgcc-4.8.2-3.el7.i686
libgcc-4.8.2-3.el7.x86_64
libstdc++-4.8.2-3.el7.i686
libstdc++-4.8.2-3.el7.x86_64
libstdc++-devel-4.8.2-3.el7.i686
libstdc++-devel-4.8.2-3.el7.x86_64
libXi-1.7.2-1.el7.i686
libXi-1.7.2-1.el7.x86_64
libXtst-1.2.2-1.el7.i686
libXtst-1.2.2-1.el7.x86_64
make-3.82-19.el7.x86_64
sysstat-10.1.5-1.el7.x86_64
yum -y install binutils compat-libcap1compat-libstdc++-33 compat-libstdc++-33.i686 gcc gcc-c++ glibc glibc.i686glibc-devel glibc-devel.i686 ksh libgcc libgcc.i686 libstdc++ libstdc++.i686libstdc++-devel libstdc++-devel.i686 libaio libaio.i686 libaio-devellibaio-devel.i686 libXext libXext.i686 libXtst libXtst.i686 libX11 libX11.i686libXau libXau.i686 libxcb libxcb.i686 libXi libXi.i686 make sysstat unixODBCunixODBC-devel readline libtermcap-devel pdksh
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------OracleLinux 6
Supported distributions:
Oracle Linux 6 with the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel(UEK):
Update 2 or higher, 2.6.39-200.24.1.el6uek.x86_64 orlater UEK2 kernels
Update 4 or higher, 3.8.13-16 or later UEK3 kernels
Update 7 or higher, 4.1.12-32 or later UEK4 kernels
Oracle Linux 6 with the Red Hat Compatible kernel:2.6.32-71.el6.x86_64 or later
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
Supported distributions:
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6: 2.6.32-71.el6.x86_64 orlater
Packages for Oracle Linux 6 and Red Hat EnterpriseLinux 6
The following packages (or later versions) must beinstalled:
binutils-2.20.51.0.2-5.11.el6 (x86_64)
compat-libcap1-1.10-1 (x86_64)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-69.el6 (x86_64)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-69.el6 (i686)
gcc-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64)
gcc-c++-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64)
glibc-2.12-1.7.el6 (i686)
glibc-2.12-1.7.el6 (x86_64)
glibc-devel-2.12-1.7.el6 (x86_64)
glibc-devel-2.12-1.7.el6 (i686)
ksh
libgcc-4.4.4-13.el6 (i686)
libgcc-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64)
libstdc++-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64)
libstdc++-4.4.4-13.el6 (i686)
libstdc++-devel-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64)
libstdc++-devel-4.4.4-13.el6 (i686)
libaio-0.3.107-10.el6 (x86_64)
libaio-0.3.107-10.el6 (i686)
libaio-devel-0.3.107-10.el6 (x86_64)
libaio-devel-0.3.107-10.el6 (i686)
libXext-1.1 (x86_64)
libXext-1.1 (i686)
libXtst-1.0.99.2 (x86_64)
libXtst-1.0.99.2 (i686)
libX11-1.3 (x86_64)
libX11-1.3 (i686)
libXau-1.0.5 (x86_64)
libXau-1.0.5 (i686)
libxcb-1.5 (x86_64)
libxcb-1.5 (i686)
libXi-1.3 (x86_64)
libXi-1.3 (i686)
make-3.81-19.el6
sysstat-9.0.4-11.el6 (x86_64)
unixODBC-2.2.14-11.el6 (64-bit) or later
unixODBC-devel-2.2.14-11.el6 (64-bit) or later
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------OracleLinux 5
Supported distributions:
Oracle Linux 5 Update 6 with the UnbreakableEnterprise kernel: 2.6.32-100.0.19 or later
Oracle Linux 5 Update 6 with the Red Hat compatiblekernel: 2.6.18-238.0.0.0.1.el5 or later
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5
Supported distributions:
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Update 6:2.6.18-238.0.0.0.1.el5 or later
Package requirements for Oracle Linux 5 and Red HatEnterprise Linux 5
The following packages (or later versions) must beinstalled:
binutils-2.17.50.0.6
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3 (32 bit)
gcc-4.1.2
gcc-c++-4.1.2
glibc-2.5-58
glibc-2.5-58 (32 bit)
glibc-devel-2.5-58
glibc-devel-2.5-58 (32 bit)
ksh
libaio-0.3.106
libaio-0.3.106 (32 bit)
libaio-devel-0.3.106
libaio-devel-0.3.106 (32 bit)
libgcc-4.1.2
libgcc-4.1.2 (32 bit)
libstdc++-4.1.2
libstdc++-4.1.2 (32 bit)
libstdc++-devel 4.1.2
libXext-1.0.1
libXext-1.0.1 (32 bit)
libXtst-1.0.1
libXtst-1.0.1 (32 bit)
libX11-1.0.3
libX11-1.0.3 (32 bit)
libXau-1.0.1
libXau-1.0.1 (32 bit)
libXi-1.0.1
libXi-1.0.1 (32 bit)
make-3.81
sysstat-7.0.2
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
安装依赖包
yum -y install binutils compat-libcap1compat-libstdc++-33 compat-libstdc++-33.i686 gcc gcc-c++ glibc glibc.i686glibc-devel glibc-devel.i686 ksh libgcc libgcc.i686 libstdc++ libstdc++.i686libstdc++-devel libstdc++-devel.i686 libaio libaio.i686 libaio-devellibaio-devel.i686 libXext libXext.i686 libXtst libXtst.i686 libX11 libX11.i686libXau libXau.i686 libxcb libxcb.i686 libXi libXi.i686 make sysstat unixODBCunixODBC-devel smartmontools
#rpm install non-database packages(Options)
net-tools* smartmontools nfs-utils* e2fsprogs*
rpm -qa --queryformat"%{NAME}-%{VERSION}-%{RELEASE} (%{ARCH})\n" binutils compat-libcap1compat-libstdc++-33 gcc gcc-c++ glibc glibc-devel ksh libgcc libstdc++libstdc++-devel libaio libaio-devel libXext libXtst libX11 libXau libxcb libXimake sysstat unixODBC unixODBC-devel
rpm -qa --queryformat "%{NAME}-%{VERSION}-%{RELEASE}(%{ARCH})\n" binutils-2.20.51.0.2-5.11.el6 \
compat-libcap1-1.10-1 \
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-69.el6 \
gcc-4.4.4-13.el6 \
gcc-c++-4.4.4-13.el6 \
glibc-2.12-1.7.el6 \
glibc-devel-2.12-1.7.el6 \
ksh \
libgcc-4.4.4-13.el6 \
libstdc++-4.4.4-13.el6 \
libstdc++-devel-4.4.4-13.el6 \
libaio-0.3.107-10.el6 \
libaio-devel-0.3.107-10.el6 \
libXext-1.1 \
libXtst-1.0.99.2 \
libX11-1.3 \
libXau-1.0.5 \
libxcb-1.5 \
libXi-1.3 \
make-3.81-19.el6 \
sysstat-9.0.4-11.el6 \
unixODBC-2.2.14-11.el6 \
unixODBC-devel-2.2.14-11.el6
4、增加用户及组,创建安装目录并授权
i=1001;
for group in dba oinstall oper backupdba dgdba kmdbaracdba asmdba asmadmin asmoper;
do
    groupadd -g $i $group; i=`expr$i + 1`
done
useradd -u 1001 -g oinstall -G dba,oper,backupdba,dgdba,kmdba,racdba,asmdba-d /home/oracle oracle  
useradd -u 1002 -g oinstall -Gdba,asmdba,asmadmin,asmoper -d /home/grid grid
echo oracle | passwd --stdin oracle
echo oracle | passwd --stdin grid
创建grid和oracle用户安装目录
mkdir -p /u01/app/grid/product/12.2.0/grid
mkdir -p /u01/app/oraInventory
mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1
chown -R grid:oinstall /u01
chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle
chmod -R 775 /u01
5、配置内核参数
export $MEMTOTAL=$(free -b | sed -n&apos;2p&apos; | awk &apos;{print $2}&apos;)
export $SHMMAX=$(expr $MEMTOTAL \*4 / 5)
SHMMNI=4096
export $SHMALL=$(expr $MEMTOTAL /\( 4 \* 1024 \))
# kernel.shmmax  大于共享内存区,小于物理内存
# kernel.shmall  物理内存/4K
1)修改内核参数
cat >> /etc/sysctl.conf <<EOF
#for Oracle Kernel Setting  
fs.aio-max-nr = 1048576
fs.file-max = 6815744
kernel.shmall = 2097152
kernel.shmmax = 4186841088
kernel.shmmni = 4096
kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500
net.core.rmem_default = 262144
net.core.rmem_max = 4194304
net.core.wmem_default = 262144
net.core.wmem_max = 1048586
EOF
/sbin/sysctl -p
kernel.shmmax = 4648718336    //9G内存
2
cat >> /etc/pam.d/login <<EOF
session   required   pam_limits.so
EOF
3)设置shell限制
cat >> /etc/profile <<EOF
#for Oracle Environment Setting
if [ \$USER = "oracle" ] || [ \$USER ="grid" ]; then
   if [ \$SHELL = "/bin/ksh" ];then
       ulimit -p 16384
       ulimit -n 65536
   else
       ulimit -u 16384 -n 65536
   fi
   umask 022
fi
EOF
source /etc/profile
4)用户资源限制
cat >> /etc/security/limits.conf <<EOF
#for Oracle Environment Setting
grid      soft    nproc 2047
grid      hard    nproc 16384
grid      soft    nofile 1024
grid      hard    nofile65536
grid      soft    stack 10240
grid      hard    stack 32768
oracle    soft    nproc  2047
oracle    hard    nproc 16384
oracle    soft    nofile 1024
oracle    hard    nofile 65536
oracle    soft    stack 10240
oracle    hard    stack 32768  
EOF
5)修改nproc限制
编辑/etc/security/limits.d/90-nproc.conf文件,将nproc值由1024改为16384,如下所示:
sed -i "s/1024/16384/"/etc/security/limits.d/90-nproc.conf
6、配置oracle用户及grid用户环境变量:
su - oracle
cat >> /home/oracle/.bash_profile <<EOF
# Oracle Environment Varibles and Startup Programs
export ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle
exportORACLE_HOME=\$ORACLE_BASE/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1
export ORACLE_SID=orcl
exportPATH=\$ORACLE_HOME/bin:\$HOME/bin:/usr/local/bin:\$PATH
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=\$ORACLE_HOME/lib:/lib:/usr/lib
export CLASSPATH=\$ORACLE_HOME/JRE:\$ORACLE_HOME/jlib:\$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/jlib
export NLS_LANG=AMERICAN_AMERICA.ZHS16GBK
export NLS_DATE_FORMAT="yyyy-mm-ddHH24:MI:SS"
umask=022
export EDITOR=/usr/bin/vim
alias sqlplus=&apos;rlwrap sqlplus&apos;
alias rman=&apos;rlwrap rman&apos;
EOF
source ~/.bash_profile
exit
su - grid
cat >> /home/grid/.bash_profile <<EOF
# Oracle Environment Variables and Startup Programs
export ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/grid
export ORACLE_HOME=\$ORACLE_BASE/product/12.2.0/grid
export ORACLE_SID=+ASM
exportPATH=\$ORACLE_HOME/bin:\$HOME/bin:/usr/local/bin:\$PATH
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=\$ORACLE_HOME/lib:/lib:/usr/lib
export CLASSPATH=\$ORACLE_HOME/JRE:\$ORACLE_HOME/jlib:\$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/jlib
export TEMP=/tmp
export TMP=/tmp
export TMPDIR=/tmp
umask 022
export EDITOR=/usr/bin/vim
alias asmcmd=&apos;rlwrap asmcmd&apos;
EOF
source ~/.bash_profile
exit
检查参数设置是否生效
umask
env | more
7、创建9个分区,三块5G用于存放OCR及VOTING信息,三块存放数据文件,三块存放闪回及归档文件大小根根据实际上需求定
echo -n -e "n\np\n1\n\n\nw\n" | fdisk/dev/sdb
echo -n -e "n\np\n1\n\n\nw\n" | fdisk/dev/sdc
echo -n -e "n\np\n1\n\n\nw\n" | fdisk/dev/sdd
echo -n -e "n\np\n1\n\n\nw\n" | fdisk/dev/sde
echo -n -e "n\np\n1\n\n\nw\n" | fdisk/dev/sdf
echo -n -e "n\np\n1\n\n\nw\n" | fdisk/dev/sdg
echo -n -e "n\np\n1\n\n\nw\n" | fdisk/dev/sdh
echo -n -e "n\np\n1\n\n\nw\n" | fdisk/dev/sdi
echo -n -e "n\np\n1\n\n\nw\n" | fdisk/dev/sdj
partx -a /dev/sdb
partx -a /dev/sdc
partx -a /dev/sdd
partx -a /dev/sde
partx -a /dev/sdf
partx -a /dev/sdg
partx -a /dev/sdh
partx -a /dev/sdi
partx -a /dev/sdj
8、上传oracleasm驱动程序并安装
rz
yum -y install kmod-oracleasmoracleasm-support-2.1.8-1.el6.x86_64.rpm oracleasmlib-2.0.12-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
初始化ASMLib
oracleasm init
启用ASMLib驱动程序
/etc/init.d/oracleasm enable
/etc/init.d/oracleasm start
配置ASMLib
/etc/init.d/oracleasm configure
标记ASMLib使用的磁盘
/etc/init.d/oracleasm createdisk VOL1 /dev/sdb1
/etc/init.d/oracleasm createdisk VOL2 /dev/sdc1
/etc/init.d/oracleasm createdisk VOL3 /dev/sdd1
/etc/init.d/oracleasm createdisk VOL4 /dev/sde1
/etc/init.d/oracleasm createdisk VOL5 /dev/sdf1
/etc/init.d/oracleasm createdisk VOL6 /dev/sdg1
/etc/init.d/oracleasm createdisk VOL7 /dev/sdh1
/etc/init.d/oracleasm createdisk VOL8 /dev/sdi1
/etc/init.d/oracleasm createdisk VOL9 /dev/sdj1
扫描ASMLib磁盘
/etc/init.d/oracleasm scandisks
列出已知ASMLib磁盘
/etc/init.d/oracleasm listdisks
查看ASM分区
ls -l /dev/oracleasm/disks/*
9、安装GI软件
service ntpd restart && ntpq -p&& date
su - grid
rz
unzip linuxx64_12201_grid_home.zip -d/u01/app/grid/product/12.2.0/grid && rm -rflinuxx64_12201_grid_home.zip
exit
yum -y install/u01/app/grid/product/12.2.0/grid/cv/rpm/cvuqdisk-1.0.10-1.rpm
su - grid
export DISPLAY=192.168.1.5:0.0
xhost +
/u01/app/grid/product/12.2.0/grid/gridSetup.sh

安装单机版GI:ConfigureOracle Grid Infrastructure for Standalone Server (Oracle Restart
10、创建ASM磁盘组
[grid@localhost ~]$ asmca
1)配置基于Configure Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standlone Server (OracleRestart)方式的ASM分区
[oracle@localhsot ~]$ lsnrctl status

11、安装RDBMS软件
su - oracle
rz
unzip linuxx64_12201_database.zip && rm -rflinuxx64_12201_database.zip
cd database/
export DISPLAY=192.168.1.5:0.0
xhost +
./runInstaller

另开一个窗口在root账户下执行安装过程中弹出的脚本:
[root@localhost ~]#/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db_1/root.sh
[root@localhost ~]# tailf/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/dbhome_1/install/root*.log

12、创建数据库
创建基于ASM的数据库
[oracle@localhost ~]$ dbca
11、安装SQL历史回调工具:
[root@localhost ~]# git clonehttps://github.com/andreyvit/rlwrap.git
cd rlwrap && ./configure && make&& make install
cd && rm -rf rlwrap
[root@localhost ~]# wgetftp://rpmfind.net/linux/epel/6/x86_64/rlwrap-0.42-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
rpm -ivh rlwrap-0.42-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
[oracle@localhost ~]$ cat >> .bash_profile<<EOF
alias sqlplus=&apos;rlwrap sqlplus&apos;
alias rman=&apos;rlwrap rman&apos;
EOF
source .bash_profile
[oracle@localhost ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba;
SQL*Plus: Release 12.2.0.1.0 Production on Fri May 2601:22:29 2017
Copyright (c) 1982, 2016, Oracle.  All rightsreserved.
Connected to:
Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release12.2.0.1.0 - 64bit Production
SQL> select status,instance_name from v$instance;
STATUS                  INSTANCE_NAME
--------------------------------------------------------
OPEN                    orcl
12、安装示例
unzip linuxx64_12201_examples.zip && rm -rflinuxx64_12201_examples.zip
cd examples
./runInstaller
13、配置归档和闪回:
#配好归档方可启动闪回
mkdir /u01/app/oracle/arch
sqlplus "/as sysdba"
altersystem set db_recovery_file_dest_size=2gscope=both;
altersystem setdb_recovery_file_dest=&apos;/u01/app/oracle/arch&apos; scope=both;
shutdown immediate;
startup mount;
alter database archivelog;
alter database flashback on;
alter database open;
archive log list;
14、验证
[grid@localhost ~]$ ocrcheck
crsctl status res -t
srvctl status database -d orcl
srvctl config database -d orcl
srvctl status listener
[oracle@localhost ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba
SQL> set lin 140         
select * from v$version;
show con_name
col pdb_name for a20
select pdb_name,con_uid,pdb_id,status from dba_pdbs;
select con_id,dbid,name,open_mode from v$pdbs;
select instance_name,status from gv$instance;
col open_time for a25
col name for a10
selectcon_id,name,open_mode,open_time,create_scn,total_size from v$pdbs;
查看归档启用与否:
SQL> archive log list
手动开启归档:
[oracle@12crac1 ~]$ srvctl stop database -d orcl
srvctl start database -d orcl -o mount
节点1:
[oracle@12crac1 ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba
idle> alter database archivelog;

alter database open;

Oracle 12C安装参考.docx

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Oracle 12c



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